Saturday, September 17, 2011

Advanced Glycation End-Products

What is it?: Advanced glycation end-products are the final result of glycation reactions, which is an uncontrolled (no enzyme) reaction where a sugar molecule covalently binds to a protein or lipid molecule.

Most Likely:
1) Increasing consumption of glucose (I would suspect any sugar) increases AGE formation within the body (1) (3) (10)
2) A constant state of hyperglycemia increases AGE formation within the body (1) (3) (10)
3) AGEs are pro-inflammatory (7) (8) (11)
4) AGEs play a role in development of diabetes (5) (9) (11)

1) Higher levels of AGEs are an accurate biomarker for cancer (2) (8)
2) AGEs accelerate diabetic damage and complications, especially vascular complications (3) (12)

1) Oxidative stress increases AGE formation (3)
2) AGEs play an active role in the biology of the lung (4)
3) Shorter cooking times, at lower temperatures, with lots of water decrease AGE formation in food (I suspect this to be true based on my limited chemistry knowledge) (6)
4) Only 10-15% of AGEs from food make it into the bloodstream

Contributing Studies: 
1) Hyperglycemia-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Increase Expression of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and RAGE Ligands

2) Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) soluble form (sRAGE): a new biomarker for lung cancer

3) Advanced glycation end products and the kidney

4) The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and the Lung

5) Advanced glycation end-products: Implications for diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathies

6) Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet

7) Expression of High-Mobility Group Box 1 and of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products in COP

8) RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts), RAGE Ligands, and their role in Cancer and Inflammation

9) Smooth muscle cell pathophysiology and advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

10) Biologic Variability in Plasma Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, and Advanced Glycation End Products Associated with Diabetes Complications

11) Advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress and diabetic nephropathy

12) Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress in vascular complications in diabetes

Studies that didn't contributed: (still good to read)

--Homodimerization Is Essential for the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE)-mediated Signal Transduction

--AGE, RAGE, and ROS in diabetic nephropathy

--Advanced glycation end products and receptor-oxidative stress system in diabetic vascular complications

--Therapeutic uses of drug-carrier systems for imidazole-containing dipeptide compounds that act as pharmacological chaperones and have significant impact on the treatment of chronic diseases associated with increased oxidative stress and the formation of advanced glycation end products

--Induction of HO-1 and redox signaling in endothelial cells by advanced glycation end products: A role for Nrf2 in vascular protection in diabetes

--Deletion of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Reduces Glomerulosclerosis and Preserves Renal Function in the Diabetic OVE26 Mouse

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